A Novel Solar Driven Mechanical Vapor Compression Desalination with Nano Filtration Pretreatment

Project title:

A Novel Solar Driven Mechanical Vapor Compression Desalination with Nano Filtration Pretreatment

Starting date: June, 2019

End date: June, 2021

PI: Prof. Hassan El-Banna S. Fath

Funded by: STDF

Summary:

Develop, design, manufacture, and pilot testing of an innovative solar driven and high performance (HP), mechanical vapor compression (MVC) desalination technology with nanofiltration (NF) pre-treatment (Solar-NF-MVC). The system electrical and thermal energies will be generated using integration concentrated photo voltaic thermal (CPVT) and concentrated solar power (CSP) units. NF and membrane de-aerator (MD) will be used for feed water pre-treatment in order to; i- increases the top brine temperature (TBT) to near 100°C and, therefore, design and operate the unit near atmospheric pressure. This will allow the use locally market available components, and reduce the size of evaporator, vapor compressor and vent ejector size, ii- eliminate or minimize the unit air in-leakage that reduces corrosion and allows the use of cheaper material. The implementation of the project will be carried out through seven work packages (WPs). Each work packages will be divided into different tasks.

Objectives and Impact:

The overall project objectives

  1. 1. Provide Egyptian industry with the conceptual and detailed design, manufacturing experience and performance testing of solar driven commercial desalination unit to support the future business plans of small and medium industries. This will enforce Egypt’s technical and industrial capabilities to gain wide and profound experience in developing and designing small/medium scale desalination units as the development of the integrated solar – MVC technology are relatively new to Egypt and such industries needs the support of experienced specialists and institutes as the project team.
  2. Support Egypt’s target in the development of remote and new areas (far from the Nile) through developing a cost-effective water production system to help the population re-distribution and creation of more job chances. This will minimize the internal migration to larger cities with its negative impacts of overcrowding, high rate of un-employment and crimes, overloading of urban services, as well as minimize the migration across borders. This will also reduce the over population and industrial activities around the Nile valley which creates a serious environmental and health problem of wastewater disposal back to the Nile and/or to underground aquifers.
  3. 3. Increase the communication and exchange of experience between industries and universities as well as specialists in water production field for the water production projects of national and international strategic importance. This will encourage stack holders, investors, companies, and utilities to invest in solar energy and desalination technologies, in larger scale. It will also benefit other sectors from the project as water supply and sanitation sector, energy sector, general environmental protection, and educational organizations (as universities) and research organizations.
  4. Increase the public awareness of the water shortage and environmental problem and the concern of scientific community for the problem solution.

II-Project Impacts

The success of the proposed solar NF-MVC desalination technology will have direct impact on the Egyptian water security and economy. As for the water security aspect, the developed technology will add to the future fresh potable water resources to balance the continuous increase in remote areas’ population and limitation of pumping treated Nile water to these areas. In terms of economy, the developed technology will provide a cost-effective water supply for rural areas, which in turn will speed the process of land reclamation and communities’ settlements by creation of thousands of local employment opportunities. It should also encourage investors, utilities, small and medium enterprises/industries (SME/I) and NGOs to support the development of such solar desalination technologies in a larger scale. The proposed project will therefore:-

i-Support Egypt’s plans for the small communities’ settlement and the development of remote areas (far from the Nile) through the production of fresh water via simple solar desalination technology.

ii-Provide local industries/workshops with the conceptual and detailed design, manufacturing experience and performance testing results of commercial solar desalination unit to support the future business plans of small and medium Enterprises/Industries (SME/I).

iii-Increase the public awareness of the water shortage, desalination, solar energy use, environmental problems and the concern of scientific community for such problems’ solution.

SDGs that the project achieves:

  • No Poverty: Support remote community life via water provision and job creation
  • Zero Hunger: Water can be used for food production via different agriculture & industrial process
  • Good Health and Well- The produced water is of high quality and naturally dis-infected
  • Quality Education: The project includes a training and workshop for students and graduate high education a highly needed topic of non-conventional water resources and technology.
  • Gender Equality: The project includes both males and females researchers.
  • Clean Water & Sanitation: The project target is to produce high quality water via solar desalination
  • Affordable and Clean Energy: The project uses the available, green, and affordable and Clean solar Energy
  • Decent Work and Economic Growth: the developed technology will provide a cost- effective water supply for rural areas, which in turn will speed the process of land reclamation and communities’ settlements by creation of thousands of local employment opportunities. It should also encourage investors, utilities, small and medium enterprises/industries (SME/I) and NGOs to support the development of such solar desalination technologies in a larger scale
  • Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure: The project provide Egyptian industry with the conceptual and detailed design, manufacturing experience and performance testing of solar driven commercial desalination unit to support the future business plans of small and medium industries. This will enforce Egypt’s technical and industrial capabilities to gain wide and profound experience in developing and designing small/medium scale desalination units as the development of the integrated solar – MVC technology are relatively new to Egypt and such industries needs the support of experienced specialists and institutes as the project team.
  • Reduced Inequality: The project targets the development of remote community to have allows equal chances for equal quality life as of Nile basin communities.
  • Sustainable Cities and Communities: The project uses sustainable solar energy source for water production. For community sustainable
  • Responsible Consumption & Production:
  • Climate Action: The developed system uses green solar energy
  • Life below water: The brine reject quality and temperature is within the specified environmental limits to maintain the life below water
  • Life on Land: The project produces fresh water which is a basic commodity of life one land.
  • Peace, Justice and Storing Institutions: Egypt is facing a gloomy water future with the limited natural water resources and the construction of Ethiopian Dam. Desalination is an alternative non-conventional water resource that ease (a little) the present tension between the two countries for peace.
  • Partnership for the Goals: The project team involves members from New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) as partner authority to achieve the project goals.

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